Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Call for study on Bardeskars’ history, culture

Call for study on Bardeskars’ history, culture
Sakal Times
Monday, 14 October 2013 - 02:24 PM IST

PIMPRI: Fr Savio Abreu, Director of Goa-based Xavier Centre of Historical Research, here on Sunday called for thorough research on the reasons for the mass exodus of Christians from Bardez taluka in Goa to borders areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka a few centuries ago, and their present culture, social history and Konkani language spoken by them. Addressing a get-together of the Pimpri Chinchwad unit of the Pune Konkani Kristha Sabha here on Sunday, Fr Abreu said that there are varied historical versions of the factors responsible for the exodus of Christians from Goa and that very little is known about this community settled in Sindhudurg and Kolhapur districts in Maharashtra and Belgaum district in Karnataka. The get-together was held at the premises of the Church of Our Lady Consoler of the Afflicted in Pimpri. It was preceded by a mass celebrated by Fr Nelson Machado and Fr Augustine Fernandes.
This community, also referred to as Bardeskars, has in the recent witnessed second migration from Kolhapur, Sindhudurg and Belgaum districts to Pune and Mumbai, the Jesuit priest said, adding that it is remarkable that the Bardeskars have preserved their culture and language.
The priest said that the Society of Jesus ( Jesuits) in Goa had assigned him to conduct a study of the Bardeskars since their exodus from Goa three to four centuries ago and urged the people to intimate him about various literature, information available on the Bardeskars community. The study will help the Bardeskars, now settled in various parts of the world, and also their future generations to know their roots and legacy, he said.
Fr Augustine Fernandes from Khanapur in Belgaum district also addressed the gathering. Those who spoke on the occasion included Pune Konkani Kristha Sabha president Peter D'Souza, founder president Alphie Monteriro, Vincent Dias and Anjelo A Menezes.

Monday, October 7, 2013

Singing bishop Valerian turns 80, gets on facebook

Singing bishop turns 80, gets on facebook
Thursday, 3 October 2013 - 10:41 AM IST
Sakal Times

PUNE: Bishop Emeritus Valerian D'Souza who will turn 80 on Thursday has said that sharing online spiritual reflections has become his new ministry which keeps him busy post-retirement.
“I have over 2,000 friends on Facebook and one third of them are youngsters - below 30 years. Many of them 'like' my Sunday sermons regularly or also post their comments,” he says.
A former student of St Vincent's High School in Pune, D'Souza was consecrated as the fifth bishop of Pune diocese in 1977. He held the post for 31 years and played an important role in the establishment and development of various church-run schools and social institutions in the diocese. During his tenure, Pune diocese was bifurcated twice to form Nashik diocese in 1987 and Sindhudurg diocese in 2005.
'When I took over as the bishop, the jurisdiction of Pune diocese included 11 districts - from Nandurbar in Khandesh to Sawantwadi in Konkan region. The areas I travelled on roads during those days as part of my pastoral ministry was equivalent to going around the Earth three times,” the bishop emeritus told Sakal Times.
D'Souza is known as the 'singing bishop' due to his penchant for singing and playing guitar during his preachings in churches. 'The man from Galilee' is one of my favourite songs,” he says.
Playing host to the visit of Pope John Paul II to Pune on February 10, 1984 was one of the major events during his tenure. “ Anywhere in the world, in his address, the Pope always spoke a few words in local languages.
The Pope was pleasantly surprised when while welcoming him at the Ramwadi grounds in the city , I spoke in his mother tongue, Polish,” recalls D'Souza.
Bishop Valerian D'Souza will celebrate a thanksgiving mass on his 80th birthday at St Patrick’s Cathedral at 6 pm on October 3.

Monday, September 30, 2013

Fr Rudolf Schoch remembered on 100th birth anniversary

Father Rudolf Schoch remembered on 100th birth anniversary
Sakal Times
Sunday, 29 September 2013 - 02:15 PM IST

Pune: The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) paid rich tributes to the late Fr Rudolf Schoch, educationist and former principal St Vincent's High School and Loyola High School on his 100th birth centenary on Friday.

Fr Schoch, born in Basel, Switzerland on September 27, 1913, had taught thousands of students when he was a teacher and principal at various  Jesuit-run schools in Pune and Ahmednagar districts. He had served as a member of the Senate of the University of Pune and on the Maharashtra School Board for many years.

Fr Schoch played an important role in the foundation of  the Dnyanmata High School in Sangamner in Ahmednagar district in 1948 and the Loyola High School in Pune in 1960. He is especially remembered for introduction of  the German language in the University of Pune curriculum and in the founding of the Max Mueller Bhavan in the city.  

Recalling services of Fr Schoch,  Fr Bhausaheb Sansare, Head of the Pune Jesuit province, described the late educationist as a great visionary and excellent financial administrator.  “Fr Schoch guided thousands of his pupils and also moulded their characters. He lived a very simple life,”  Fr Sansare said. 

Schoch had joined the Society of Jesus, a congregation of Catholic priests, in 1932 and came to India in 1938. In Pune, he studied Marathi and Sanskrit and also taught at St Jude's High School in Dehu Road between 1946-48. 

He also translated some abhangs of  Sant Tukaram  into German. Fr Schoch died in Pune in 2001 at the age of 88.  
Anup Y Attavar, an ex-student of the St Vincent's High School said, “Fr Schoch was an institution by himself and motivated us students to excel. His commitment to high moral values helped him make gentlemen out of the boys.”

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Our Lady of Lourdes, France

Our Lady of Lourdes, France

Sakal Times blog

We checked into the hotel rooms at Lourdes pilgrim town in France and soon left for the site where Mother Mary is believed to said to appeared to teenager Bernadette Soubirous  in 1858.  My wife Jacqueline, daughter Aditi and I joined the hundreds of pilgrims who were heading towards the basilica built near the site of the apparition. Lourdes is one of the most visited Catholic pilgrim centres in the world. What we experienced during the next three days of our stay in this small town was just unforgettable. The ongoing novena prayers in honour of Mother Mary and her feast on September 8 have refreshed my memories of the days we spent in Lourdes.

We reached at the large ground in front of the impressive Rosary basilica. There were hundreds of wheelchair-bound patients queued up to participate in the evening candle-lit procession during which the devotees said rosary and litany prayers in French, English and other languages. Sick people from various places In Europe and elsewhere are especially brought here to seek their healing. Incidentally the wheel-chairs were moved not by the relatives of the sick but by local volunteers and professional health nurses clad in white and blue uniforms. Lourdes city has indeed seen prosperity due the flourishing pilgrim tourism there. The city is one of the most important centres of Marian devotion, the other being Fatima in Portugal and Vailankanni in India. Some group of devotees in the procession were carrying banners of their nations from various continents and looking at them I wished I too should have prepared a banner of India!

The next morning, we visited the grotto, the site of Mother Mary's apparition. Mary is said to have appeared to peasant girl Bernadette 18 times. A small statue of Mary is placed up higher in the grotto and masses celebrated daily at the site are attended by thousands of visiting devotees. During our visit, a German bishop and an Italian cardinal concelebrated the mass there and me and my family members were privileged to meet both of them, thanks to a Catholic priest who was accompanying us on our Europe tour.

The visit to the Saint Pius X Basilica on the third day of our stay left all of us bewildered. The underground basilica accommodates as many as 25,000 people and is one of the largest churches in the world. International masses with prayers in major world languages are celebrated at the basilica on every Wednesday and 
Sunday morning. Pope John Paul II - the pilgrim pontiff who set a record of visiting a large number of nations - had visited Lourdes first in 1983 and later in 2004.

Lourdes is indeed a beautiful and very clean tourism centre. During our stay there, we walked for a long distance admiring the landscape there, the clean sky blue waters of the river flowing just opposite the grotto and shopping at the local shops. The large number of photographs taken there have helped me to keep afresh memories of this picturesque town.

Saturday, July 20, 2013

Puneites hail choice of ‘fellow Jesuit’ as Pope Francis

Puneites hail choice of ‘fellow Jesuit’ as Pope
Sakal Times
Friday, 15 March 2013 - 03:19 PM IST

PUNE: The news of election of a Jesuit as the new pope led to joyous celebrations at various Jesuit institutions in the city on Thursday. This has been for the first time that a member of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) has been elected as the pontiff.
Pune Jesuit Provincial Father Bhausaheb Sansare who is incidentally in Rome to attend the Provincials Colloquium said that he was privileged to witness the new pope’s election at the Vatican on Wednesday.
“My phone has been ringing since this morning and I have received many emails, congratulating us the Jesuits on one of us being elevated to the post of the pope,” said Fr Bertie Rosario, former principal of St Vincent’s High School. Sr Santan Nago, Superior General of the Sisters of Our Lady of Fatima, said that she is looking forward to meeting the new pope when the heads of congregation of nuns from all over the world will meet in Rome in the first week of May, this year.
Incidentally, the Sisters of Our Lady of Fatima is the only nuns congregation having its headquarters in the city. Most of the Catholic religious congregations have their headquarters either in Rome or other parts of the country.
Jesuit scholar Fr Noel Sheth has termed the pope’s elections as a new milestone in the history of the Catholic Church. “The third world countries now have someone who knows first-hand their struggles, difficulties and problems, Joe Kasbe from Vadgaonsheri said that he was happy that a the conclave of cardinals has chosen an Argentine as the new pope. “ However I would have been happier if a cardinal from Asia were elected as the pontiff,” he added.

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Sunday, June 16, 2013

Attempts to free Marathwada tamasha artistes from exploitation: French Missionary Fr Jacquier

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- B g.1892 nmgyZ)

H$m{_b nmaIo

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V_mem `m bmoH$H$boMo bmoH$ZmQ>çmV ê$nm§Va hmoÊ`mAmYr nma§n[aH$ V_memVrb H$bmH$mam§Mr OmVr{df`H$ nmíd©^y_r, pñÌH$bmH$mam§Mo b¢{JH$ emofU Am{U `m bmoH$H$boVrb à`moJm§Vrb g§dmX Am{U ZmMJmÊ`m§Vrb AíbrbVm dJ¡ao g§X^© Ü`mZmV KoVbo åhUOo Om{H$`a~m~m§Zr V_membm H$m {damoY Ho$bm ho g_OVo. "[n§Oam" {MÌnQ>mVrb AmXe© _mñVahr Z¡{VH$ Ñï>rH$moZmVyZM V_memÀ`m Ioimg {damoY H$aV AgVmV. _hmamï´>mMo {dÚ_mZ Cn_w»`_§Ìr Ama. Ama. nmQ>rb `m§Zr nwT>mH$ma KoD$Z _hmamï´> amÁ`mV {~`a~ma_Ü`o _{hbm§À`m ZmMJmÊ`m§da ~§Xr KmVbr Amho. Ë`m_mJohr pñÌ`m§À`m b¢{JH$ emofUmg Am{U AíbrbVog {damoY AerM Ë`m§Mr ^y{_H$m Amho.
\$mXa Om{H$`a `m§À`m g§X^m©V à{gÕ Pmboë`m Hw$R>ë`mhr {bImUmV Ë`m§Zr V_membm Ho$boë`m {damoYmMm C„oI _mÂ`m dmMÊ`mV H$Yr Ambm Zmhr. _mÂ`m AmB©-d{S>bm§Zr Am{U KmoJaJmdmVrb _mÂ`m _m_m§À`m g§^mfUmV _mÌ `m~m~VMr MMm© _r AZoH$Xm EoH$br Amho. em§ËdZ Am{U dm_Z {eZJmao `m _mÂ`m XmoZ _m_m§Zr Om{H$`a~m~m§À`m N>H$S>çmda JmS>rdmZ åhUyZ H$m_ Ho$bo hmoVo, Ë`m_wio Ë`m§Zr gm§{JVbobr _m{hVr `m~m~V {dídmgmh© _mZVm `oB©b.
Om{H$`a~m~m§{df`r KmoJaJmd n[agamV Añn¥í` {¼ñVr g_mOmV VgoM CÀMdUu` dJ¡ao _§S>irV _moR>m AmXa hmoVm. gaH$maXa~mar H$boŠQ>a Am{U VhgrbXma `m gma»`m A{YH$mè`m§er Am{U eoOmanmOmaÀ`m Jmdm§À`m nmQ>rb dJ¡ao _§S>iter Ë`m§Mo Iyn Mm§Jbo g§~§Y hmoVo. Am¡a§Jm~mX {OëømVrb d¡Omnya Am{U J§Jmnya VmbwŠ`m§Vrb AZoH$ Jmdm§Vrb Ë`m§À`m H$m_m§_wio, Ë`m§À`m {eñV{à` ñd^mdm_wio Ë`m§À`m {df`rMm EH$ àH$maMm Xamamhr Ago. CÀM{e{jV Am{U `wamo{n`Z Agë`mZo {~«{Q>e O_mÝ`mV gaH$maXa~margwÕm Ë`m§Mm dMH$ Ago. Ë`m_wio Om{H$`a~m~m§Zr Añn¥í`VmnmbZmgma»`m EImÚm A{Zï> dm AZ¡{VH$ gm_m{OH$ éT>rg {damoY Ho$bm Va Aemàg§Jr Ë`m§À`m {damoYmg OmÊ`mMr Hw$UmMr qh_V Zgm`Mr. Om{H$`a~m~m§Zr V_memÀ`m àWog {damoY Ho$bm Voìhmhr AgoM Pmbo AgUma.
KmoJaJmd Am{U AmgnmgÀ`m n[agamVrb _hma g_mOmVrb AZoH$ {¼ñVr ñÌr-nwéfhr Ë`mH$mimV V_memV H$bmH$ma åhUyZ H$m_ H$aV AgVrb `m{df`r e§H$mM Zmhr. V_memV ZmÀ`m qH$dm _mderMr ^y{_H$m H$aUmè`m nwéf ZQ>mbm bm§~ Ho$g amImdo bmJV Ago. `m J«m_rU ^mJmV AZoH$ df} amhÿZ `m bmoH$H$boMo EHy$U ñdê$n g_Oë`mZ§Va Hw$R>ë`mhr {¼ñVr Y_©Jwê$Zo Amnë`m Y_©J«m_mVrb {¼ñVr _{hbm§g V_memV ZmMÊ`mJmÊ`mnmgyZ namd¥Îm Ho$bo AgVo. {¼ñVr nwéf _§S>itZr V_memV Aíbrb ñdê$nmMr ZmMJmUr åhUy Z`o, ZmÀ`mMo H$m_ H$é Z`o `mgmR>r Ë`m§À`mdahr X~md AmUbm AgVm.Om{H$`a~m~m§Zr Va KmoJaJmd n[agamV Amnë`m Am`wî`mMr Mma XeHo$ Kmb{dbr. `m \o«§$M Y_©Jwê$Zo KmoJaJmdmV Amë`mZ§Va B§J«Or Am{U _amR>r ^mfm§da Mm§Jbo à^wËd {_idbo hmoVo. KmoJaJmdmVrb {¼ñVamOm _§{XamV Ë`m§Zr AZoH$ df} Zd{¼ñVr bmoH$m§Zm Vo _amR>r ^OZo, Jm`Zo {eH$dV AgV. V_membm Ë`m§Zr {damoY H$aÊ`mAmYr Ë`m§Zr `m bmoH$H$boÀ`m {d{dY A§Jm§Mm Aä`mg ZŠH$sM Ho$bm AgUma. KmoJaJmdÀ`m n§MH«$moerVrb JmdmVrb ~hþVoH$ Hw$Qw>§~mVrb gd© ì`º$s¨Zm Vo Mm§Jbo AmoiIV hmoVo. Ë`m§À`mn¡H$s AZoH$m§Zm Ë`m§Zr H$Yr Zm H$Yr _XV Ho$br hmoVr. Ë`m_wio EH$ ehmUr, OwUrOmUVr ì`º$s åhUyZ Amnë`m Y_©J«m_mVrb bmoH$m§Zm ehmUnUmMo H$mhr IS>o ~mob gwZmdÊ`mMm Ë`m§Mm h¸$ gdmªZmM _mÝ` hmoVm.
\$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Mm V_membm Agbobm H$S>dm {damoY nmhVm Vo KmoJaJmdmV AgVmZm `m bmoH$H$boMo à`moJ `m JmdmV Pmbo AgVrb `m{df`r XmQ> e§H$mM Amho. _mÌ AmgnmgÀ`m IoS>çm§V V_memMo Ioi hmoVM AgV. `mÌoÀ`m dm BVa Hw$R>ë`mhr {Z{_ÎmmZo V_memMo à`moJ Agbo åhUOo Ë`m JmdmVrb Am{U AmOy~mOyÀ`m n[agamVrb nwéf_§S>ir VoWo AmdOy©Z hOa amhmV AgV. V_memMo ho à`moJ amÌrM a§JV AgV. T>mobH$sÀ`m Am{U BVa nma§n[aH$ dmÚm§À`m Vmbmda V_mgJra _{hbm Am{U nwéf JmV Am{U ZmMV AgV. Aemdoir \$mXa Om{H$`a Amnbr KmoS>mJmS>r ~mhoa H$mTy>Z Ë`m AmdmOmÀ`m {XeoZo {ZKV. amÌrÀ`m doir ZXr qH$dm AmoT>o Amobm§Sy>Z V_memÀ`m OmJr Vo nmohmoMV AgV. Ë`m Añn¥í` ñÌr-nwéf H$bmH$mam§Zr V_memÀ`m _mÜ`_mVyZ hmoUmao Ë`m§Mo ñdV:Mo b¢{JH$ emofU amoImdo åhUyZ Ë`m§Zm CnXoe H$aV AgV. AZoH$Xm CnXoemEodOr Ë`m bmoH$m§Mr H$mZCKmS>UrM Ho$br OmV AgUma. V_memnWH$ _moJbmB© n[agamVrb Agbo Va Ë`mVrb ~hþVoH$ V_mgJra Om{H$`a~m~m§À`m Y_©J«m_mVrb {¼ñVr bmoH$M AgV.
V_memMm EoZ a§JmV Ambobm à`moJ AemàH$mao ~§X nmS>ë`mZ§Vahr ho V_mgJra XwgarH$S>o Hw$R>oVar V_memMo Ioi MmbyM R>odVrb åhUyZ \$mXa Om{H$`a Ë`m§Mr T>mobH$s, VwUVwUr, S>\$ dJ¡ao dmÚo Amnë`m Vmã`mV KoV AgV. H$bmd§{VUrÀ`m nm`mVrb Mma-nmM {H$bmo dOZmMo Kw§Jê$hr H$mTy>Z KoV. Ë`m{edm` nwéf H$bmH$mam§Zr ZmÀ`mMr qH$dm _mderMr ^y{_H$m H$é Z`o åhUyZ Ë`m§Zr bm§~ dmTdboë`m Ho$gm§Zmhr H$mÌr bmdV AgV.
Om{H$`a~m~m§À`m AmR>dUtZm _mPo AmB©dS>rb, _m_m Am{U BVa OwZr _§S>ir COmim XoV Voìhm ho \$mXa V_mem H$go ~§X nmS>V AgV ho `m{df`r h_Img ~mobbo OmB©. Om{H$`a~m~m§Zr V_mg{Ja§mH$Sy>Z Vmã`mV KoVboë`m Am{U Amnë`m KmoS>mJmS>rVyZ KmoJaJmdmV AmUboë`m T>mobH$r, V_mgJra H$bmd§{VUtMo K§wJê$, VwUVwUo, S>\$ dJ¡ao g§JrVdmÚm§Zr {_eZH§$nmD§$S>_Yë`m XmoZ Imoë`m ^aë`m hmoË`m ho _mPr AmB© AmOhr AmdOy©Z gm§JV AgVo. _mJo KmoJaJmdbm _r ^oQ> {Xbr Voìhm VoWrb _w»` Y_©Jwê$ \$mXa ñQ>r\$Z Aë_oS>m `m§Zrhr `mg XwOmoam {Xbm. V_mg{Jam§Mr Vr g§JrVdmÚo Xhm-n§Yam dfmªnydun`ªV {_eZ H§$nmD§$S>_Yrb H$mhr Imoë`m§V gm§^miyZ R>odÊ`mV Ambr hmoVr Ago Ë`m§Zr EoH$bo Amho Ago Ë`m§Zr _bm gm§{JVbo.
_hma-_m§J `m Añn¥í` OmVrVrb bmoH$m§gmR>r V_mem hr bmoH$H$bm Va CXa{Zdm©hmMo _w»` gmYZ hmoVo. g_mOmVrb `m gdm©{YH$ Cno{jV KQ>H$m§Mm Vm|S>Mm Kmg {hamdyZ KoÊ`mMm \$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Mm _wirM CÔoe ZìhVm. V_mem~m~V Om{H$`a~m~m§Mr ^y{_H$m g_mOgwYmaH$mMr hmoVr. Amnë`m Y_©J«m_mVrb Añn¥í` bmoH$m§À`m Am{W©H$ Am{U CÞVrgmR>r \$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Zr Am{U _moJbmB©Vrb qH$dm Ah_XZJa {OëømVrb BVa {_eZatZr AZoH$ àH$ën am~dbo hmoVo. bmoH$m§À`m AS>rAS>MUrÀ`m àg§Jr Vo YmdyZ OmV AgV. Amnë`m Y_©J«m_mVrb IoS>çm§Vrb _wbm§Zr gmja ìhmdo åhUyZ Om{H$`a~m~m§Zr AZoH$ Jmdm§V emim gwê$ Ho$ë`m hmoË`m. `m emim§V gd© OmVr-Y_mªÀ`m _wbm§Zm \w$H$Q> {ejU {Xbo OmV Ago. `m emim§À`m _mñVam§À`m {ZdmgñWmZm§Mm Am{U nJmamMm IM©hr \$mXa ñdV: CMbV AgV. V_memVrb H$m_ gmoS>bo Va `m bmoH$m§gmR>r CXa{Zdm©hmMr Xwgao n`m©`hr Ë`m§Zr CnbãY H$ê$Z {Xbo hmoVo. KmoJaJmdmV gÜ`m Cä`m Agboë`m C§M {eIadOm {¼ñVamOm _§{XamMo H$m_ EH$mo{Ugmì`m eVH$mÀ`m gwê$dmVrÀ`m H$mimV drg df} Mmby hmoVo. `m ~m§YH$m_m_wio AmgnmgÀ`m AZoH$ gwVma, Jd§S>r Aem Hw$eb H$mam{Jam§Zm VgoM BVa AZoH$ AHw$eb H$m_Jmam§Zm AZoH$ df} amoOJma CnbãY Pmbm hmoVm. Om{H$`a~m~m§Mm V_membm Agbobm {damoY Am{U `m bmoH$H$boMo à`moJ ~§X nmS>Ê`mgmR>r Ë`m§Zr Ho$bobm AmQ>m{nQ>m `mbm AWm©VM e§^a dfm©nyduÀ`m H$mimMm g§X^© Amho. Ë`mH$mimV pñÌ`m§Zr ZmQ>H$m§V dm {MÌnQ>m§V H$m_ H$aUogwÕm AZ¡{VH$ g_Obo OmB© Am{U Ë`m_wio AJXr ~mbJ§YdmªÀ`m H$mimn`ªV nwéfM pñÌ`m§À`m ^y{_H$m H$aV AgV. AmO emgZ Am{U {d{dY g§ñWm-g§KQ>Zm V_memgma»`m bmoH$H$bm§Mo OVZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r à`ËZ H$aV AmhoV. V_mem `m bmoH$H$boZo gmVmg_wÐmnma, nmpíM_mË` Xoemn`ªV _Ob _mabr Amho. _mÌ AOyZhr `m bmoH$H$boMm OmVr` g§X^© Zmhrgm Pmbobm Zmhr. ñdmV§Í`mZ§Va gmR> dfmªZ§Va, Añn¥í`Vm H$m`ÚmZo ~§X Pmë`mZ§Va AmOhr gaH$mar, {Z_gaH$mar Am{U ImgJr H$m`m©b`m§V g\$mB© H$m_Jma, ^§Jr, {enmB© dJ¡ao H$m_o nydm©l_rÀ`m Añn¥í` g_mOmVrbM bmoH$ H$aVmV. VgoM IoS>çmnmS>çm§V hmoUmè`m V_memVrb ~hþg§»` ñÌr-nwéf H$bmH$ma AmOhr _hma, _m§J, H$moëhmQ>r `m g_mOmVrbM AmhoV. "AmOhr V_memV Jm`H$ åhUyZ _hma H$bmd§VmMr g§»`m OmñV à_mUmV Amho' Ago S>m°. H$g~o `m§Zr åhQ>bo Amho.4 `m bmoH$H$boer {ZJ{S>V Agbobo X{bV OmVt{df`H$ g§X^© AOyZhr nwgbo Jobobo ZmhrV. "~«m÷UmKar {bìhZ§, _hmamKar JmU Am{U _m§JmKar dmOdU§" Am{U "_hmamM§ JmU§ Am{U _m§JmM§ S>\$S>§" Aem åhUr àM{bV AmhoV. X{bV OmVt{df`H$ `m g§X^mª_wio Am{U BVahr H$mhr H$maUm§_wio {MÌnQ>g¥ï>rVrb Am{U a§J^y_rdarb ñÌr-nwéf H$bmH$mam§Zm h„r {_iUmar à{Vð>m, YZàmár Am{U ½b°_aMo db` V_mg{Jam§À`m Z{e~r AOyZ Var Zmhr.
V_mgJra H$bmd§Vm§Mo hmoUmao b¡§{JH$, Am{W©H$ Am{U gm_m{OH$ emofU AmOhr nyU©V: ~§X Pmbobo Zmhr. ho emofU ~§X H$aÊ`mgmR>r V_memMo à`moJ ~§X H$aÊ`mMr _wirM Oéar Zmhr. _mÌ Vm|S>mbm a§J \$mgyZ a§J_§MmdéZ, N>moQ>çm dm _moR>çm nS>Úm§dê$Z àojH$m§Mo _Zmoa§OZ H$aUmè`m H$bmH$mam§À`m dmQ>çmbm `oUmao Am{W©H$ Am{U BVa bm^ X{bV g_mOmVrb `m bmoH$H$bmH$mam§Zmhr {_imdoV Aer _m\$H$ Anojm ~miJm`bm haH$V Zmhr.Amnë`m _wbm§Zr Amnbm ì`dgm` nwT>o Mmby R>odmdm Ago à{VW`e S>m°ŠQ>am§Zm, amOH$s` nwT>mè`m§Zm Am{U BVa H$mhr joÌm§Vrb bmoH$m§Zm dmQ>V AgVo. V_mem hr bmoH$H$bm åhUyZ {Q>Hy$Z amhm`bm hdr, Ago åhUUmè`m Am{U Ë`mÑï>rZo à`ËZ H$aUmè`m bmoH$m§Zmhr Amnë`m _wbm~mim§Zr `m joÌmV n¡gm Am{U Zmd H$_dmdo Ago _ZmnmgyZ dmQ>bo VaM `m bmoH$H$bobm IaoM g_mO_mÝ`Vm Am{U à{Vð>m àmßV Pmbr Ago åhUVm `oB©b. Z{OH$À`m H$mimV V_mg{Jam§À`m Z{e~r hr à{Vð>m Am{U gwI {_iÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Zgob Va ho H$bmH$ma V_membm H$m {MH$Qy>Z am{hbo Agm A{^ZoVo {Ziy \w$bo `m§Zm nS>bobm àíZ BVa Hw$Umbmhr nSy> eHo$b. Aem n[apñWVrV _J eVH$mnyduMo Om{H$`a~m~m§Mo Vo dV©Z IaoM g_W©Zr` hmoVo H$s H$m` Aerhr e§H$m EImÚmÀ`m S>moŠ`mV S>moH$mdy eHo$b.
g§X^© :
1) S>m°. {_qbX H$g~o, "V_mem : H$bm Am{U H$bmd§V', gwJmdm àH$meZ, nwUo (2007 ) (nmZ 9)
2) darbà_mUo, nmZ 29
3) {d. _. Xm§S>oH$a Am{U _. ^m OJVmn, "_hmamï´>mMr J«m_rU g_mOaMZm', àH$meH$: Y. am. JmS>Jri, JmoIbo AW©emó g§emoYZ g§ñWm, nwUo - 411 004 (1957), nmZ 20
4) Zmam`U gwd}, "_mUyg, H$bmd§V Am{U g_mO", nm°ß`wba àH$meZ, 35 gr, n§._mbdr` _mJ©, VmS>Xod, _w§~B© 400 034, (1992) (nmZ 68)
5) S>m°. {_qbX H$g~o, "V_mem : H$bm Am{U H$bmd§V', (nmZ 51)

(nyd©à{gÜXr: "gwJmdm' _m{gH$, nwUo, OmZodmar 2008 Am{U "{Zamoß`m" _m{gH$ Owb¡ 2008)

Working among untouchables in Marathwada village : Fr Gurien Jacquier

KmoJaJmdMo Om{H$`a~m~m
(‘amR>dmS>çmVrb {¼ñVr {_eZH$m`m©Mm B{Vhmg
- B g.1892 nmgyZ)

H$m{_b nmaIo
6) Om{H$`a~m~m§Mo ì`{º$‘Îd
’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Mr {eS>uOdirb amhmVm `oWo H$mhr H$mi ~Xbr Pmbr hmoVr. nwUo Y‘©àm§VmMo Z§Va {ìhH$a OZab Pmbobo ‘mopÝgZmoa ao{OZmëS> JmoÝgmbdrg ho Ë`mH$mimV amhmË`mbm ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Mo ghm`H$ hmoVo. JmoÝgmbdrg `m§Zr ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Mo ì`{º$‘Îd Am[U Ë`m§Mr H$m`©e¡br `m{df`r {b{hbo Amho. `m ‘hmZ {‘eZarMo {MÌ Ë`m§Zr nwT>rb eãXm§V aoImQ>bo Amho.
""’$mXa Jw[aEZ Om{H$`a ho ^anya C§M Am{U ~iH$Q> hmoVo. Ë`m§Mr XmT>r H§$~aon`ªV hmoVr Am{U XmQ> ^wd`m§Imbr ^oXH$ S>moio hmoVo. Hw$R>ë`mhr àH$maMo H$ï> Vo gmogV AgV. H$R>rU n[apñWVrer Vo gm‘Zm H$aV AgV. IS>~S>rV, YwirÀ`m añË`m§dê$Z Amnë`m Q>m§½`mVyZ Vo {XdgmVyZ 30 ‘¡b àdmg H$aV AgV, CKS>çmda Hw$R>ohr PmonV AgV Am{U H$moaS>çm MnmË`m Am{U eo§JXmÊ`m§da Vo Amnbr ^yH$ ^mJdV AgV. AemàH$maÀ`m Xm¡è`mda Vo {H$VrVar AmR>dS>o AgV Am{U {‘eZ Ho$§Ðmda naVë`mZ§Vahr Vo AJXr VmOoVdmZo Am{U V§XwéñV AgV. Ë`m§Mm Agm hm {XZH«$‘ Vã~b nÞmg df} Mmby hmoVm! ’$mXa Om{H$`a AË`§V hwema hmoVo. B©ekmZ Am{U H°$Wmo{bH$ Y‘©{Z`‘m§Mm Ë`m§Mm Xm§S>Jm Aä`mg hmoVm. ^maVmV Amë`mZ§Va Ë`m§Zr B§J«Or Am{U ‘amR>r ^mfm§Mm Aä`mg MmbyM R>odbm hmoVm .Amnë`m Q>o~bmnmer noZ, H$mJX, {S>ŠeZar Am{U ì`mH$aUm§Mr nwñVHo$ KoD$Z Vo Aä`mg H$aV. H°$Wmo{bH$ Y‘©{ejUmÀ`m Aä`mgH«$‘mV Am{U ‘amR>r Jm`Zm§À`m nwñVH$m§V gwYmaUm KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mV Vo VmgZVmg JH©$ AgV. Vo EH$ AË`§V C? XOm©Mo g§JrVH$ma hmoVo. Amnë`m {‘eZH|$ÐmVrb bmoH$m§À`m VrZ-Mma {nT>çm§Zm Ë`m§Zr gmYrgmonr Jm`Zo Am{U g§JrV{‘ñgm {eH${dbr. Vo EH$ à^mdr dºo$ hmoVo. ‘mÌ Ë`m§Mm AmdmO daÀ`m {Q>nobm nmohmoMbm H$s T>Jm§À`m JS>JS>mQ>mMmM ^mg hmoB©. ~w{Õ~i, nÎmo Am{U {~{b`S>©g IoiÊ`mV Vo nma§JV hmoVo. {d{dY joÌm§Vrb Ëæmm§À`m `m H$m¡eë`m§‘wio Ë`m§À`m XJXJrÀ`m OrdZmV AË`§V Amdí`H$ AgUmam {da§Jwim {‘iV Ago. Ë`m§À`m `m H$m¡eë`mMm Ë`m§À`m AmgnmgÀ`m bmoH$m§Zmhr ’$m`Xm hmoV Ago.
Am¡a§Jm~mX {OëømVrb J§Jmnya Am{U d¡Omnya VmbwŠ`m§Vrb AZoH$ IoSy>V ’$mXa Om{H$`aÀ`m ê$nmZo n{hë`m§XmM EImXr `wamo{n`Z ì`ŠVr nmhmV hmoVo. Ë`m§À`m Ë`m XmQ> ^wd`m, C§Monwao VJS>o eara Am{U XwWS>r ^ê$Z dmhUmè`m JmoXmdarÀ`m nmÊ`mgmaIm JO©Umam Ë`m§Mm Vmo AmdmO Hw$UmÀ`mhr N>mVrV YS>H$s {Z‘m©U H$aUmam hmoVm. ñdV:hÿZ Ë`m§À`mH$S>o OmÊ`mMr Hw$UmMrhr qh‘V ZìhVr. ’$mXa Hw$R>ë`mhr dñVrV {eabo H$s {VWë`m Am`m~m`m Amnë`m S>moŠ`mdaÀ`m nXamZo Moham A{YH$M PmHy$Z KoV Am{U bJ~JrZo PmonS>çm§V {eaV. bhmZ ‘wbo~mio Km~ê$Z qH$MmiV, aS>V Xya niV OmV. nmamda nÎ`m§Mm S>md IoiV Agbobr nwéf‘§S>ir KmB©KmB©Zo nÎmo bn{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aV. ‘mÌ Vmon`ªV Iyn Cera Pmbobm Ago. ’$mXam§À`m ZOaoVyZ Ë`m§Mm nÎ`m§Mm S>md {ZgQ>bobm ZgVmo. Amnë`m bm§~ T>m§Jm Q>mH$V Vo nmamOdi nmohmoMV Am{U nÎ`m§Mr ‘mJUr H$aV. Z§Va {VWë`mM EH$m XJS>mda ~gyZ Vo nÎmo {ngm`bm bmJm`Mo. Vmon`ªV ^rS> Monboë`m Ë`m ‘mUgm§H$Sy>Z Vo Ë`m§À`m nÎ`m§Mm S>md {eHy$Z KoV Am{U Z§Va Ë`m§ZmM Ë`m§À`m Ë`m S>mdm§V hadm`Mo. Amnë`mbm ‘mhrV Agbobo S>mdhr ’$mXa Ë`m Jmddmë`m§Zm {eH$dV AgV. nÎmo A{YH$ g§»`on`ªV H$go ‘moOm`Mo hohr Vo Ë`m {Zaja IoSy>Vm§Zm {eH$dV.
Ë`mZ§Va dfm©Zwdf} ’$mXa Om{H$`a Ë`m Am{U BVa Jmdm§Zm ^oQ> XoV am{hbo. Amnë`m Ë`m Zoho‘rÀ`m XJS>m§da dm nmam§da ~gyZ VoWrb JmdH$è`m§er Vo nÎmo IoiV, g§dmX gmYV. Vmon`ªV nwîH$i Jmdm§V AZoH$ bmoH$ {¼ñVr Pmbobo Agm`Mo. JmdÀ`m nmQ>rb Am{U BVa qhXy bmoH$m§erhr ’$mXam§Mo Mm§Jbo g§~§Y {Z‘m©U Pmbobo Agm`Mo. nwT>À`m H$mimV ’$mXa Om{H$`a Ambo Va VoWrb Am`m~m`m§Zm Km~ê$Z PmonS>rV {eaÊ`mMr JaO ^mgV Zgo. CbQ> Amnë`m bhmZ½`m ‘wbm§Zm KoD$Z Ë`m ’$mXam§Zm ^oQ>m`bm `m`À`m. Vmon`ªV CVmad`mH$S>o PwH$bobo ’$mXa Om{H$`a AmVm gJù`m§Mo Om{H$`a~m~m ~Zbobo AgV. H$mhr ‘wbo Va Om{H$`a~m~m§À`m H$‘aoda éiUmè`m XmT>rerhr Mmim H$aV. H$mhr XeH$m§nydu `mM bhmZ ‘wbm§Mo AmB©-dS>rb Am{U H$Xm{MV AmOr-AmOmo~mgwÕm ’$mXa Om{H$`abm nmhÿZ bm§~ nimbo hmoVo.""
’$mXa {‘Mob \$m°aob `m§Zr Om{H$`a~m~m§{df`r gZ 1909 ‘Ü`o {b{hbo hmoVo. ""Jobr nmM df} ‘mPo Jwê$ ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§À`m ‘mJ©Xe©ZmImbr ‘r {‘eZH$m`m©Mo YS>o KoVmo Amho. `oWrb Am‘Mo gd© {¼ñVr bmoH$ ‘hma `m Añn¥í` OmVrMo AmhoV. Amnë`m OwÝ`m gd`r Q>mHy$Z {¼ñVr Y‘m©à‘mUo dmJUo Ë`m§Zm {VVHo$ gmono OmV Zmhr. H$mhr OUm§Mm AndmX gmoS>bm Va ho ~hþVoH$ gd© bmoH$ hiyhiy {¼ñVr àoaUm Am{U OrdZe¡brMm ñdrH$ma H$aVmV. ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Zm Vo Amnë`m {nË`mg‘mZ ‘mZ XoVmV. `oWrb EHy$U 3hOma 900 ~m{áñå`m§n¡H$s 3 hOma ~m{áñ‘o ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§ZrM Ho$bo AmhoV. `oWrb ‘hmam§Zm ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§À`m{df`r Iyn ^rVr dmQ>Vo Am{U Ë`mM~amo~a Ë`m§Zm Ë`m§À`m{df`r Iyn ào‘hr Amho. ~mhoarb BVam§er ~mobVm§Zm Vo AmXamZo ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§À`m ñd^mdm~Ôb, Ë`m§À`m bm§~bMH$ XmT>r~Ôb Am{U Vo amJmV Agë`mda Ë`m§Mo S>moio {H$Vr ^r{VXm`H$ AgV `m~Ôb gm§JV AgVmV. ’$mXa Om{H$`a ñd^mdmZo IynM Mm§Jbo AmhoV Am{U AS>rAS>MUrÀ`m H$mimV Ë`m§À`m nmR>r‘mJo amhUmar Am{U Ë`m§Zm ‘XV H$aUmar Xwgar BVa Hw$R>brhr ì`º$s Zmhr Ago ho bmoH$ AJXr Iwë`m ‘ZmZo gm§JVmV.""
KmoJaJmdÀ`m {¼ñVamOm ‘§{Xa Y_©J«m_mÀ`m 'qMVZ' `m ‘wInÌmÀ`m E{àb 2004 A§H$mV ~miy Jm`H$dmS> `m§Mr hr H${dVm Om{H$`a~m~m§Mo {MÌ S>moù`mnwT>o C^o H$aVo.

H$mir Q>monr bm§~ XmT>r, emo^o Om{H$`a~m~mbm
hmM Iam ‘hmamï´>mV Y‘©Jwê$ n{hbm
d¡Omnya VmbwŠ`mV N>moQ>g§ ho Jmd
Am¡a§Jm~mX Y‘©àm§VmV n{hbo KmoJaJmd
ñ‘emZ^y‘rV amhÿZ ‘mJ© Xmdrbm OZm§Zm

Q>n Q>n KmoS>çm§Mm Q>m§Jm OmB© IoS>çm§da
Ho$bm Y‘m©Mm àMma ào‘ XrZm§da
gË` dmMZ ew^ AmMaU emo^o nm§T>è`m P½`mbm

{ZË` H$ar H«w$g àmW©Zm On‘mi
A{daV H$îQ>m§‘YyZ ~m§{Ybo XoD$i
KUKU K§Q>m dmOo Xmhr {Xem§Zm
hmM Iam ‘hmamï´>mV Y‘©Jwê$ n{hbm

7) {‘eZH$m`m©V, IoSw>Vm§‘Ü`o a‘bobo Om{H$`a~m~m
KmoJaJmdmV Añn¥í` ‘hma g‘mOmV ào{fVH$m`© Am{U gm‘m{OH$ à~moYZH$m`© H$aUo {VVH$s gmYrgwYr Jmoï> ZìhVr. eVH$mZweVHo$ Añn¥í` åhUyZ C?dUu` g‘mOmZo dmirV Q>mH$boë`m ‘hma g‘mOmÀ`m AZoH$ gm‘m{OH$ Am{U Am{W©H$ g‘ñ`m hmoË`m. Amnë`m Jmdm§Vrb C?dUu`, Am{U {deofV: JmdMo nmQ>rb Am{U gmdH$ma `m§À`mH$Sy>Z Ë`m§Zm AË`§V dmB©Q>, An‘mZmñnX dmJUyH$ {‘iV Ago. g‘mOmV gX¡d hoQ>miUrM dmQ>obm Amboë`m ‘hma bmoH$m§‘Ü`o H$mimÀ`m AmoKmV AZoH$ ~è`m~wè`m àWm éOë`m hmoË`m. ~mb{ddmh, H$mS>r_moS> qH$dm KQ>ñ’$moQ>, b¾m{dZm EH$Ì amhUo Aem àWm Ë`mdoir hmoË`m. Ë`m~Ôb Hw$UmbmM H$mhr J¡a dmQ>V ZìhVo. {¼ñVr Y‘m©À`m VÎdmZwgma bmoH$m§Mo AmMaU Agmdo `mgmR>r `m J«m‘rU ^mJmV `m naXoer {‘eZarg Iyn AmQ>m{nQ>m H$amdm bmJV Ago. Amnë`m `m Zd{¼ñVr g‘mOmÀ`m gm‘m{OH$, Z¡{VH$ Am[U Am{W©H$ pñWVrV gwYmaUm ìhmdr `mgmR>r Ë`m‘wio ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Zm AZoH$Xm H$mhr H$Qy YmoaU ñdrH$mamdo bmJV Ago.
Am¡a§Jm~mX {OëømV Ë`mH$mir àM{bV Agboë`m AZoH$ A{Zï> gm‘m{OH$ àWm ~§X H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§Zm Iyn H$ï> H$amdo bmJbo. EImXm ~mb{ddmh hmoUma Amho qH$dm EImXr ì`º$s Amnbr nËZr qH$dm nVr {Od§V AgVmZm Xwgao b¾ H$aUma Amho Ago H$ibo H$s ’$mXa Om{H$`a Amnë`m KmoS>çmda ñdma hmoD$Z {Xdgm qH$dm amÌr Xhm-drg ‘¡b àdmg H$ê$Z Ë`m Jmdr OmD$Z Vr àWm amoIV AgV. V‘mem `m bmoH$H$boVrb Aíbrb àH$ma Am{U `m bmoH$H$boÀ`m _mÜ`_mVyZ V‘mgJra ór-H$bmH$mam§Mo hmoUmao b¢{JH$ emofU `m~Ôb ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Zm àM§S> MrS> hmoVr. KmoJaJmd n§MH«$moerV AJXr a§JmV Ambobo V‘memMo à`moJ Ë`m§Zr AZoH$Xm ~§X nmS>bo hmoVo. ~mb{ddmh, Xwgao b¾ `mgmaIo àH$ma EH$Q>çmXwH$Q>çmZo amoIUo {VVHo$ ghO ZìhVo. ‘mÌ `wamo{n`Z Agë`mZo ’$mXam§Mm EH$ àH$maMm dMH$ Ago Am{U Ë`m§Zm {damoY H$aÊ`mMr Hw$Um EH$m ì`º$sg qH$dm AJXr O‘mdmghr qh‘V hmoV Zgo. H$m`XmH$mZyZMr ‘m{hVr Agë`mZo àg§Jr gaH$maXa~mar OmD$Z Ago A{Zï> àH$ma Vo amoIV AgV. Ë`m‘wio AZoH$Xm Ë`m§Zm Amnë`mM bmoH$m§Mm amofhr AmoT>dyZ ¿`mdm bmJV Ago. Ë`m_wio 1900 gmbr Amnë`m amoO{ZerV EH$Xm ’$mXam§Zr {b{hbo hmoVo : ""‘bm bmoH$m§Zr Iam~ gmho~ åhUOo H$S>H$, ^`§H$a Ago Zmd {Xbo Amho. ‘mÂ`m `m à{V‘oer gmOogo dV©Z H$aÊ`mMm ‘r A{YH$m{YH$ à`ËZ H$aVmo Amho.''
’$mXa Om{H$`a ñd^mdmZo {H$Vrhr H$S>H$ Agbo Var {‘eZH|$ÐmVrb Amnë`m bmoH$m§{df`r Ë`m§Zm ‘m`m, ào‘ hmoVo. {H$VrVar eVHo$ Añn¥í` åhUyZ hoQ>mië`m Joboë`m, Jmdm~mhoa hmH$bboë`m, Xodim§V àdoe ZmH$maboë`m ‘hma bmoH$m§Zm n{hë`m§XmM EH$ ì`ŠVr ‘mPo bmoH$ åhUyZ ñdrH$maV hmoVr. Ë`m§Zm Ë`m§À`m JwUm§-AdJwUm§gh ñdrH$maV hmoVr. IoS>çmnmS>çm§‘Ü`o `m bmoH$m§‘Ü`o dmdaVmZm ’$mXa Om{H$`a AJXr Ë`m§À`mn¡H$s EH$ hmoV, Ë`m§À`mgmaIr OrdZe¡br OJV. KmoJaJmd {‘eZHo$§ÐmVrb AZoH$ JmdÀ`m ‘hma bmoH$m§Zm `mMoM ’$ma ‘moR>o Aàyn dmQ>V hmoVo.
KmoJaJmdÀ`m n§MH«$moerVrb AS>mUr, Jmd§T>i Zd{¼ñVr bmoH$m§‘Ü`o H$m‘ H$aV AgVm§Zm `wamo{n`Z g§ñH¥$VrÀ`m ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§À`m ghZeº$sMm AZoH$Xm A§V Pmbm AgUma. ‘mÌ {‘eZar d¥ÎmrZo H$m‘ H$aVm§Zm Ë`m§Zr Ë`m bmoH$m§Zm gm§^miyZ KoVbo. ñWm{ZH$ bmoH$m§Zrhr Ë`m§Mm {eñV{à` ñd^md, bmoH$m§À`m AS>MUrÀ`m doir ‘XV H$aÊ`m{df`rMr Agbobr Vi‘i g‘OmdyZ KobVr Am{U Ë`m§À`m H$S>H$ ñd^mdmH$S>o, AmH$m§S>Vm§S>dmH$S>o Xwb©j Ho$bo. EH$mM Jmdr Mma XeHo$ H$m‘ H$aÊ`mMr ’$mXam§Zm g§Yr {‘imbr. Aem n[apñWVrV EImÚm ì`º$sMo XwJw©U, ‘`m©Xm A{YH$ AYmoaoIrV hmoD$Z Vr ì`º$s ZmdS>Vr hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. Om{H$`a~m~m§À`m ~m~VrV Ago KS>bo Zmhr, CbQ> Ë`m§À`mer {ZJ{S>V Agboë`m AZoH$ KQ>Zm `m n[agamV AmOhr H$m¡VwH$mZo gm§{JVë`m OmVmV.
’$mXa ‘m[a`mZ Wm°‘g `m§Mr 1897 bm ZmJnyabm ~Xbr Pmë`mZ§Va H$mhr ‘{hÝ`mVM {demImnÅ>U‘bm ZwH$VoM Xrjm{dYr Pmbobo ’$mXa AZ}ñQ> WoìhZoQ> ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Mo ghm`H$ åhUyZ KmoJaJmdbm Ambo. {‘eZar H$m‘mV AmdS>rZo ^mJ KoUmè`m ’$mXa AZ}ñQ>Mr àH¥$Vr ‘mÌ IynM ZmOyH$ hmoVr. gVV AmOmar nS>V Agë`m‘wio ’$mXa AZ}ñQ> `m§Zm {‘eZar§Mr IS>Va OrdZe¡br Ponbr Zmhr. gZ 1898 À`m ‘Ü`m§Vamg Ë`m‘wio Ë`m§Mr Im§S>dm `oWo ~Xbr Pmbr. ’$mXa Om{H$`a KmoJaJmdmV nwÝhm EH$Xm EH$Q>oM am{hbo.
Amnë`m `m bmoH$m§{df`r ’$mXam§Zr {b{hbo Amho : ""‘hma bmoH$m§‘Ü`o AZoH$ AdJwU AmhoV. Ë`m§À`mV Zo_Ho$ Hw$R>bo Xmof ZmhrV ho gm§JUo AdKS> Amho. `mn¡H$s J{d©ï> ñd^md Am{U Aàm‘m{UH$nUm ho Xmof A{YH$ R>iH$nUo {XgyZ `oVmV. `m bmoH$m§er ‘m`oZo Am{U Ë`mM~amo~a I§~ranUo dmJmdo bmJVo. Ë`m§À`mH$SyZ EImXo Iyn ‘moR>o XwîH¥$Ë` hmoÊ`mnmgyZ Q>miÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§À`m bhmZghmZ XwJw©Um§H$S>o H$mZmS>moim H$amdm bmJVmo. EImXm Xmof Xya H$aUo eŠ` Zgob Va ‘J Amnë`m VÎdmer ~m§{YbH$r H$m`‘ R>odUo Amdí`H$ R>aVo.''
1902 À`m Owb¡ ‘{hÝ`mV KmoJaJmdmV ‘moR>r Ymdni gwê$ hmoVr. `m{df`r ’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Zr amoO{ZerV {b{hbo Amho : ""[‘eZ H§$nmD§$S>‘Ü`o ^aJ? H$m`©H«$‘m§Zr ‘moR>r OmZ Ambr Amho. Joë`m AmR>dS>çmV e§^amhyZ A{YH$ bmoH$m§Zm ‘bm OodU Úmdo bmJbo. `m AmR>dS>çmV 80 bmoH$m§gmR>r OodU ~Zdbo. Ë`m{edm` {‘eZ H§$nmD§$S>‘Ybo H$m‘H$ar bmoH$ Am{U emioVrb ~mo{S>ªJ‘Ybr ‘wbo AmhoVM. gÜ`m `oWo doJdoJù`m H$m_m§V bmoH$ X§J AmhoV. `oWo O‘boë`m bmoH$m§Zm Mma ‘mñVa Y‘©{ejU XoV AmhoV. Ë`m§À`m ‘XVrg H$Yr H°$Q>o{H$ñQ> emioVrb ‘moR>r ‘wbohr AgVmV. BWë`m emioÀ`m dJm©dJm©§V, ìham§S>çm§V Am{U PmS>m§Imbrhr {dÚmÏ`mªÀ`m Am{U àm¡T>m§À`m JQ>mJQ>m§Zm Y‘©{ejU {Xbo OmV Amho. `mn¡H$s H$mhr OU n{hë`m H$å`w{Z`ZMr V`mar H$aV AmhoV, Va H$mhr OU {ddmhnyd© à{ejUmV Y‘©{df`H$ kmZmMr COiUr H$aV AmhoV. Ë`m{edm`, ñd`§nmH$KamVyZ XJS>m§À`m OmË`m§da XiU XiÊ`mMm AmdmO Am{U ñd`§nmH$s ~m`m XiU XiVmZm JmV Agboë`m Amoì`m EoHy$ `oV AmhoV. EHy$U gJù`m n[agamV ~mobÊ`mMm Am{U Jm`ZmMm AmdmO H$mZmda nS>Vmo Amho. `m gd© Jmo§Yimda ‘mV H$aV ‘mñVa bmoH$ Amnë`m H$H©$e AmdmOmV ‘moR>çmZo gyMZm XoV AmhoV. Aem `m g§JrV‘` dmVmdaUmV ‘r ñdV: ho nÌ {b{hV Amho. M°nob‘Ü`o VmbmgwamV àmW©Zm Jm`ë`m OmV AmhoV. {OVH$m OmñV Jm|Yi Am{U JS>~S>, {VVH$m A{YH$ ‘r AmZ§Xr AgVmo. Á`mdoir qhXwñWmZr bmoH$ AmdmO H$aV Zmhr, Ë`mdoir Vo Pmonbo AmhoV Ago Iwemb g‘OyZ ¿`mdo.""
’$mXa Om{H$`a `m§Zr KmoJaJmdÀ`m n[agamV ZdZdr {‘eZH$|Ðo C^mabr. g§V ’«$m{Ýgg Po{d`aÀ`m gUm{Z{‘Îm åhUOo 3 {S>g|~a 1901 amoOr daIoS> JmdmV Zì`m M°nboMr H$moZ{ebm Amerdm©{XV H$aÊ`mV Ambr. Ë`mM ‘{hÝ`mÀ`m AIoarg ZmJnwamhyZ ’$mXa H$m°nob Am{U H$mhr H°$Q>o{H$ñQ> {gñQ>a KmoJaJmd {‘eZH|$ÐmVrb bmoH$m§gh ZmVmi gU gmOam H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ambo hmoVo. ZmVmimÀ`m nyd©g§Ü`obm åhUOo 24 {S>g§o~abm Am{U 25 {S>go§~abm KmoJaJmdmV ‘moR>m H$m`©H«$‘ Pmbm.
`m CËgdm~Ôb ’$mXa Om{H$`aZo Amnë`m amoO{ZerV {b{hbo Amho : ""ew^dV©‘mZmVrb `oeyOÝ‘mg§~§Yr Agboë`m KQ>Zm§da AmYm[aV EH$ _yH$ZmQ>ç Mm§Jë`m nÜXVrZo gmXa H$aÊ`mV Ambo, XodXyVmMm n{dÌ ‘m[a`obm {Zamon, ~oWboho‘bm ^oQ>rg `oUmao ‘|T>nmi Am{U ‘mJr amOo, `oey OÝ‘mZ§Va AZoH$ {ZanamY ~mbH$m§Mr Pmbobr hË`m....H°$Q>o{H$ñQ> {gñQ>am§Zr ‘yH$ZmQ>çmVrb H$bmH$mam§Zm CÎm‘arË`m gO{dbo hmoVo. ZmQ>çmVrb àË`oH$ àg§J Jm`ZmÀ`m, g§dmXm§À`m Am{U ‘mñVam§Zr H$oboë`m {ZdoXZmÀ`m AmYmao àojH$m§Zm g‘OmdyZ gm§{JVbo Jobo. Am‘À`m KamMm bm§~ ìham§S>m H$mnS>m§Zr PmHy$Z ~Zdboë`m VmËnwaË`m àojmJ¥hmV ~gyZ AmgnmgÀ`m IoS>çmnmS>çm§VyZ Amboë`m 500 {¼íMZm§Zr hm H$m`©H«$‘ ‘moR>çm Am¡ËgwŠ`mZo nm{hbm. Ë`mZ§Va M°nob‘Ü`o ‘Ü`amÌrMr ‘moR>r {‘ñgm Pmbr. Ë`mdoir 250 hyZ A{YH$ OUm§Zr n{dÌ H$å`w{Z`Z ñdrH$mabo. Ë`mZ§Va, Xwgè`m {Xder MmaeohyZ A{YH$ bmoH$m§Zm ZmVmi gUm{Z{‘Îm ‘oOdmZr XoÊ`mV Ambr.''
{‘eZarO Am°’$ g|Q> ’«$m{Ýgg S>r goëgZo (E‘EgE’$Eg) ‘amR>dmS>çmV {‘eZH$m`© gwê$ Pmë`mZ§Va KmoJaJmdÀ`m n§MH«$moerVrb bmoH$m§gmR>r Pmbobm ~hþXm hm n{hbmM ‘moR>m H$m`©H«$‘ hmoVm.

Sunday, June 9, 2013

Untouchables: Those banished from the village limits

JmdHw$gm~mhoaMm {¼ñVr g_mO

H$m{_b nmaIo

àH$meH$: gwJmdm àH$meZ

2) JmdHw$gmVrb, JmdHw$gm~mhoaMo OJ

{h§XwñWmZmV {~«{Q>em§Mm A§_b gwê$ Pmbm Voìhm `m XoemVrb ~hþVoH$ àm§Vm§Vrb g_mO Añn¥í`, Añn¥í` Am{U doJdoJù`m OmVr-O_mVtV {d^mJbm hmoVm. {~«{Q>em§À`m amOdQ>rV nmíMmË` {dMmam§Mo XoemV dmao dmhÿ bmJbo VgVgo nwamoJm_r nwT>mè`m§Zr Añn¥í`Vm{Z_w©bZmgmR>r bT>m gwê$ Ho$bm. _mÌ Xoembm ñdmV§Í` {_imë`mZ§Va Am{U H$m`ÚmZo Añn¥í`VmnmbZmda ~§Xr `oD$Zhr hr àWm {H$Ë`oH$ df} MmbyM am{hbr hmoVr. Añn¥í`m§Zm Ë`mH$mimV ^moJmì`m bmJUmè`m `mVZm§Mr _m{hVr H$ê$Z KoÊ`mgmR>r ñdmV§Í`nyd© H$mimVrb J«m_rU g_mOOrdZmMr AmoiI AgUo Oê$arMo Amho.
_hmamï´>mVrb IoS>oJmdm§V Ë`m nyU© JmdmVrb bmoH$dñVr EH$mM {R>H$mUr AmT>iV Zmhr. H$mhr OU Amnë`m eoVm§da amhV AgVmV, H$mhr {R>H$mUr Xhm~mam Kao EH$Ì AmT>iVmV Am{U Ë`m dñVrbm dmS>r åhQ>bo OmVo. JmdMr _w»` dñVr åhUOo JmdR>mU. H$moH$UMm AndmX gmoS>bm Va JmdR>mU Am{U dmS>çm AemàH$maMr dñVr ~hþVoH$ {R>H$mUr gmnS>Vo. `m JmdR>mUm^modVr Mmoam-XamoS>oImoam§nmgyZ g§ajUmgmR>r VQ>~§Xr Ho$br Agm`Mr, `m VQ>~§Xrbm JmdHw$gy åhQ>bo Om`Mo. JmdR>mUmV åhUOo `m JmdHw$gmÀ`m AmV g_mOmÀ`m Cƒ dUm©À`m åhUOo ñn¥í` OmVrÀ`m bmoH$m§Mr Kao Agm`Mr. JmdHw$gmÀ`m ~mhoa ImbÀ`m OmVrÀ`m, Añn¥í` OmVr§À`m bmoH$m§Mr dñVr Agm`Mr. `m Añn¥í` g_mOmV _hma, _m§J Am{U Mm§^ma `m OmVtMm g_mdoe Agm`Mm. _hmamï´>mÀ`m OdiOdi gd©M ^mJm§V Añn¥í` g_mOmV _hma OmVrÀ`m bmoH$m§Mr g§»`m gdm©{YH$ AmT>iVo.
JmdHw$gmÀ`m AmVrb daÀ`m OmVr§À`m Am{U JmdHw$gm~mhoaÀ`m ~{hîH¥$V, ImbÀ`m OmVr§À`m g_mOOrdZmMo Xe©Z KS>dUmar H$mhr nwñVHo$ {dgmì`m eVH$mÀ`m gwédmVrg Am{U Ë`mZ§Va à{gÜX Pmbr hmoVr. {~«{Q>e A_XmZrÀ`m H$mimV ñn¥í`m§Mo Am{U Añn¥í`m§Mo nañnag§~§Y, ~bwVoXmar Am{U JmdHw$gm~mhoa OJUmè`m bmoH$m§Mr VËH$mbrZ OrdZe¡br `m~Ôb {dídmgmh© _mZVm `oB©b Aer _m{hVr hr nwñVHo$ nwadVmV. Ë`mH$mimVrb g_mOOrdZmMm Aä`mg H$aUmè`m g§emoYH$m§À`mÑï>rZo hr nwñVHo$ AË`§V _wë`dmZ AmhoV. {̧~H$ Zmam`U AmÌo `m§Zr {b{hbobo 'JmdJmS>m' Am{U 1915 gmbr à{gÜX Pmbobo ho Ë`mn¡H$s EH$ AË`§V _hÎdmMo nwñVH$ Amho.1 {dgmì`m eVH$mÀ`m gwê$dmVrVrb Aìdb B§J«Or A§_XmZrÀ`m H$mimVrb npíM_ _hmamï´>mVrb J«m_rU OrdZmMr ho nwñVH$ AmoiI H$ê$Z XoVo. aoìh AboŠPm§S>a am°~Q>©gZ `m§Mo 1938 gmbr à{gÜX Pmbobo 'Xr _hma \$moëH$ - A ñQ>S>r Am°\$ AZQ>Mo~ëg BZ _hmamï´>' `m nwñVH$mVyZ Ah_XZJa, am`JS> (Hw$bm~m ho AmYrMo Zmd) {Oëho Am{U ZmJnya `m n[agamVrb _hmam§Mo JmdJmS>çmVrb ñWmZ Am{U Ë`m§Mr OrdZe¡br `m{df`r _m{hVr {_iVo.2 (`m nwñVH$mMr _amR>r Amd¥Îmrhr AmVm CnbãY Amho. 3 ) Ë`mZ§VaÀ`m H$mimVrb åhUOo 1950À`m Xaå`mZ _hmamï´>mVrb Jm_rU g_mOOrdZmMr _m{hVr H$ê$Z XoUmao {d. _. Xm§S>oH$a Am{U _. ^m OJVmn `m§Zr {b{hbobo '_hmamï´>mMr J«m_rU g_mOaMZm' ho AmUIr EH$ _hÎdmMo nwñVH$ Amho. nwÊ`mÀ`m JmoIbo AW©emó g§emoYZ g§ñWoZo _hmamï´>mV 1951-52 gmbr gd}jU Ho$bo hmoVo. Ë`m gd}jUmVyZ hmVr Ambobr _m{hVr `m nwñVH$mV g§H$brV Ho$br Amho.4 ñdmV§Í`moÎma H$mimVhr Añn¥í`m§Zm Hw$R>ë`m hmbAnoï>m§Zm Vm|S> Úmdo bmJV hmoVo `mMo {MÌU 1970 Z§Va à{gÜX Pmboë`m AZoH$ X{bV boIH$m§À`m AmË_H$WZm§VyZ ñnï> Pmbo Amho.
JmdHw$gm~mhoaÀ`m _hmam§À`m dñVrbm _hmadmS>m Am{U _m§JmÀ`m dñVrbm _m§JdmS>m åhUV AgV. _moJbmB©Vrb d¡Omnya Am{U J§Jmnya VmbwŠ`mVrb _hmadmS>çmbm 'amOdmS>m' AgoM g§~moYbo OmVo. `oWrb AZoH$ Jmdm§Vrb _hma bmoH$ e§^a dfmªnyduM {¼ñVr Pmbo Agbo Var EH${dgmì`m eVH$mV AmOhr Ë`m§Mr dñVr amOdmS>m qH$dm _hmadmS>m åhUyZM AmoiIbr OmVo. Y_mªVam_wio Ë`m§À`m gm_m{OH$ Am{U Am{W©H$ pñWVrV \$magm ~Xb Pmbm Zmhr `mMoM ho g§~moYZ EH$ ÚmoVH$ Amho.
ImZXoe, _amR>dmS>m dJ¡ao n[agam§V JmdHw$gmMo ~m§YH$m_ XJS>mMo qH$dm ^|S>mMo åhUOo nm§T>è`m _mVrÀ`m H$ÀÀ`m {dQ>m§Mo Agm`Mo. JmdHw$gmÀ`m ~mhoa nS>Ê`mÀ`m dmQ>oda XadmOm Agm`Mm. nyduÀ`m H$mir doerMo ho XadmOo gy`m©ñVmnmgyZ gy`m}X`mn`ªV ~§X Ho$bo OmV AgV Am{U àË`oH$ doerda amIUrgmR>r dogH$a åhUyZ EH$ _hma ~gV Ago.
Á`m Jmdmbm ZXrAmoT>çmgma»`m dmhË`m àdmhmMo nmUr {nÊ`mgmR>r dmnabo OmB© Aem {R>H$mUr Añn¥í`m§Mr dñVr nmÊ`mÀ`m àdmhmÀ`m ImbÀ`m ~mOyZo Ago. AemàH$mao daÀ`m OmVrMo bmoH$ ZXrMo nmUr àdmhmÀ`m daÀ`m ~mOyg ^aV Am{U ImbÀ`m OmVrMo, Añn¥í` bmoH$ àdmhmÀ`m ImbÀ`m ~mOyg nmUr ^aV. Ë`m_wio Añn¥í`m§À`m ñnem©Zo {dQ>mi Pmbobo nmUr dmnaÊ`mMm YmoH$m {Z_m©U hmoV Zgo.
ZXrda qH$dm AmoT>çm§da gm_m{OH$ CVa§S>rZwgma doJdoJù`m {R>H$mUr {d{eï> OmVtMo nmUdQ>o AgV. àdmhmÀ`m daÀ`m ~mOybm gd©àW_ g_mOmÀ`m gdm©V loð> Aem ~«m÷U OmVrMo nmUdR>o, Agm`Mo, Ë`mZ§Va ImbÀ`m OmVtMo åhUOo _amR>m, _mir dJ¡ao ñn¥í` OmVtMo nmUdR>o Agm`Mo. ñn¥í`m§À`m nmUdR>çmImbr Añn¥í`m§Mo nmUdR>o gwê$ hmoV. Ë`m§À`m gm_m{OH$ ñVam§Zwgma åhUOo AmYr am_moer d Mm§^ma, Ë`mZ§Va T>moa, Ë`mÀ`mImbr _hma, _hmam§À`m Imbr _m§Jm§Mo nmUdR>o AgV. gdmªÀ`m eodQ>r Imbr ^§Jr OmVrMm nmUdR>m Ago.
_mÌ {dQ>mi Pmbobo Ë`m ZXrAmoT>çm§Mo nmUr Ë`mZ§Vahr dmhVM amhm`Mo Am{U Xwgè`m Jmdm§V VoM nmUr Cƒ dUmªMo bmoH$ n{hë`m§Xm dmnaV AgV. dmhË`m nmÊ`mbm {dQ>mi ZgVmo Aer EH$ åhU _amR>rV Amho, Vr ~hþYm `m H$maUm_wioM Aem _`m©{XV AWm©Zo ê$T> Pmbr Agmdr.
H$mhr Jmdm§V gmd©O{ZH$ AmS> qH$dm {dhrarVrb nmUr dmnabo OmB©. _mÌ _hma, _m§J, Mm§^ma, T>moa, am_moer Am{U H¡$H$mS>rgma»`m ImbÀ`m OmVrÀ`m bmoH$m§Zm `m VWmH${WV gmd©O{ZH$ {d{harda nmUr ^aÊ`mMr nadmZJr ZìhVr. Ë`m§À`mgmR>r doJio {dhra qH$dm AmS> Agm`Mo. _mÌ _hmam§À`m {d{harda _m§Jm§Zm nmUr ^aVm `oV Zgo. _mÂ`m AmOmoimV åhUOo KmoJaJmdmV 'amOdmS>çmV' åhUOo _hmadmS>çmV ñdV§Ì {dhra hmoVr, ho _bm ñnï> AmR>dVo. amOdmS>çmVrb `m {dhrarbm JmdmVrb ñn¥í`m§À`m {d{harnojm df©^a A{YH$ _w~bH$ nmUr Agm`Mo Ago _mPr AmB© AOyZ gm§JV AgVo.
Á`m Añn¥í` OmVtZm ñdV:Mr {dhra Zgo Ë`mbmoH$m§Zm _J BVam§À`m _ohoa~mZrda Adb§~yZ amhmdo bmJo. gmd©O{ZH$ {dhrarda VmgZVmg C^o amhÿZ H$moUrVar Ë`m§Zm nmUr dmTy>Z XoB©b `mMr Ë`m§Zm dmQ> nmhmdo bmJo. nmUr ß`m`Mo Agbo Var Ë`m§Zr Imbr dmHy$Z hmVmMr Am|Oi Ho$ë`mZ§Va ñn¥í` bmoH$ bm§~yZ dê$Z nmUr AmoVV AgV.
Añn¥í`m§Zm gmd©O{ZH$ nmUdQ>o Iwbr H$aÊ`mV `mdr `m _mJUrgmR>r S>m° ~m~mgmho~ Am§~oS>H$am§Zr H$moH$UmVrb _hmS> `oWo 1927 gmbr bT>m Ho$bm. VoWrb MdXma Vù`mMo nmUr Añn¥í`m§Zr MmIbo. _mÌ Var gmd©O{ZH$ nmUdQ>o Añn¥í`m§Zm Iwbo hmoÊ`mgmR>r AmUIr {H$VrVar XeH$m§Mm H$mbmdYr Omdm bmJbm. 'Añn¥í` O_mVr gmd©O{ZH$ {d{harda nmUr ^ê$ bmJë`mMo EH$hr CXmhaU Amåhr nmhUr Ho$boë`m 72 Jmdm§V {_imbo Zmhr' Ago {d. _. Xm§S>oH$a Am{U _. ^m. OJVmn `m§Zr 1957 gmbr à{gÜX Pmboë`m Amnë`m nwñVH$mV {b{hbo Amho. g_mOgodH$ S>m° ~m~m AmT>md `m§Zr Añn¥í`Vm àWoMo {Z_©byZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r 1970À`m XeH$mV 'EH$ Jmd, EH$ nmUdR>m' `moOZm am~dÊ`mgmR>r _hmamï´>mV Midi am~dbr hmoVr. 'EH$ Jmd, EH$ nmUdR>m' `mM {ef©H$mÀ`m nwñVH$mV S>m° AmT>mdm§Zr OmVrg§~§YmVrb Amnbo AZw^d gm§{JVbo AmhoV.5
h„r J«m_rU ^mJm§V gJirH$S>oM JmdR>mU, JmdHw$gy Am{U dog `m Jmoï>r B{VhmgO_m Pmë`m AmhoV. _mÌ `m OwÝ`m ~m§YH$m_m§Mr nS>PS> Pmbobr Agbr Var Ë`m§À`mer {ZJS>rV g_mOaMZoV Am{U g_mOmÀ`m _mZ{gH$VoV \$magm ~Xb Pmbobm Zmhr. AÑí` ñdénmV `oWo AmOhr JmdHw$gmÀ`m AmV Am{U JmdHw$gm~mhoa OJUmar XmoZ doJdoJio OJ AmT>iVmV.

1) qÌ~H$ Zmam`U AmÌo, 'Jmd-JmS>m' ; àH$meH$: h. A. ^mdo, daXm ~wŠg, 397/1, goZmnVr ~mnQ> _mJ©, nwUo 411 016 ({Vgar Amd¥Îmr, nwZ_w©ÐU 1995)

2) AboŠPm§S>a am°~Q>©gZ, 'Xr _hma \$moëH$ - A ñQ>S>r Am°\$ AZQ>Mo~ëg BZ _hmamï´>' Xr [a{b{OAg bmB©\$ Am°\$ B§{S>`m'; àH$meH$: dm` E_ gr E.npãbqeJ hmD$g, 5, agob ñQ´>rQ>, H$mobH$mVm, håào {_b\$moS>©, Am°Šg\$moS>© `w{Zìh{g©Q>r àog (1938); Xwgè`m Amd¥VrMo àH$meH$ S>m°. AemoH$ Jm`H$dmS>, H$m¡eë` àH$meZ, EZ-11, gr-3/24/3, hS>H$mo, Am¡a§Jm~mX, 431 003 (2005)

3) AboŠPm§S>a am°~Q>©gZ, '_hma bmoH$- _hmamï´>mVrb Añn¥í`m§Mm Aä`mg (^maVmMo Ym{_©H$ OrdZ), AZwdmXH$: {^jw grd{b~moYr Am{U ñ_aU X{hdbo; àH$meH$: Xo. am. nJmao, gwJV àH$meZ, 780, d¡embrZJa, ZmJnya- 17, ({ÛVr`md¥Îmr 1991)

4) {d. _. Xm§S>oH$a Am{U _. ^m OJVmn, '_hmamï´>mMr J«m_rU g_mOaMZm', àH$meH$: Y. am. JmS>Jri, JmoIbo AW©emó g§emoYZ g§ñWm (àH$meZ nmMdo), nwUo- 411 004 (1957); (nmZ 10)

5) S>m° ~m~m AmT>md, 'EH$ Jmd, EH$ nmUdR>m',


Monday, June 3, 2013

Gaokusabahercha Khristi Samaj

    JmdHw$gm~mhoaMm {¼ñVr g_mO , gwJmdm àH$meZ, nwUo

H$m{_b nmaIo
S>r-29, lÜXm JmS>©Z,
qMMdS>Jmd, nwUo 411 033
H$m°nramB©Q>: O°ŠbrZ nmaIo


1) _moJbmB©Vrb {¼ñVr ' amOdmS>m '

2) JmdHw$gmVrb, JmdHw$gm~mhoaMo OJ

3) doerImbyZ KmoS>m ZoÊ`mg ~§Xr

4) ñdmV§Í`nyd© H$mimVrb X{bV {¼ñVr g_mO

5) Y_m©§Va H$emgmR>r - ^mH$argmR>r, AmË_gÝ_mZmgmR>r {H$ {dÐmohmgmR>r ?

6) _hmaH$s gmoS>Ê`mMm, Am§~oS>H$ar MidirMo AZwH$aU H$aÊ`mMm g„m

7) naXoer {¼ñVr {_eZar

8) '{¼ñVr _hma' eãXmbm Amjon

9) doJir AmhmanÜXVr Am{U A§Ë`g§ñH$ma àWm

10) Omohma, O` ^r_ Am{U O` {¼ñV

11) AmajUmÀ`m ~m~VrV X{bV {¼íMZm§da AÝ`m`

12) amOH$maUmV 'Zm KaH$m Zm KmQ>H$m' pñWVr

13) gm{hË`joÌmV {nN>ohmQ>

14) e¡j{UH$ joÌmVrb AZweof

15) eVH$dra '{_amoß`m' _m{gH$

16) {dÐmohr gm{hpË`H$, g§nmXH$ gË`dmZ Zm_Xod gy`©d§er§

1) _moJbmB©Vrb {¼ñVr ' amOdmS>m '
KmoJaJmdbm Amåhmbm Om`Mo Agbo {H$ AmXë`m {Xder Am_Mo _m_m ~¡bJmS>r KoD$Z lram_nyabm `oV AgV. KamVrb Amåhm H$mhr _wbm§Zm _J ~¡bJmS>rMr g¡a KS>V Ago. nhmQ>oM ñd`§nmH$ H$ê$Z ~mB© EH$m H$mnS>çmV ^mH$ar Am{U ~Q>mQ>çmMr ^mOr ~m§YyZ KoB©. ~amo~aÀ`m {nVirÀ`m H$S>rÀ`m Vm§ã`mV nmUr Ago. Xwnmar ~mamÀ`m gw_mamg WmoS>o\$ma nmUr Agboë`m JmoXmdarÀ`m nmÌmV Am_Mr ~¡bJmS>r CVabr {H$ Am_Mm àdmg H$mhr H$mi Wm§~o.
{edam__m_m JmS>rMo ~¡b gmoSy>Z Ë`m§Zm ZXrMo nmUr XmIdyZ AmUë`mZ§Va Ë`m§À`mg_moa H$S>~m Q>mH$s. 'J§Jm Amobm§S>br åhÝOo Ambmo AmnwZ AmVm _moJbmB©V, AmËVm H$m` {Zå_mM nadmg !' Ago åhUV ~mB© Amnë`m _mhoaÀ`m {XeoZo ZOa Q>mH$s. J§JoÀ`m C§M Vramda C^o am{hbo {H$ KmoJaJmdÀ`m {¼ñVamOm _§{XamMo C§M {eIa R>iH$nUo {XgVo Ago Vr Amåhmbm Zoho_r gm§JVo. gH$mi, Xwnmar Am{U g§Ü`mµH$mir àmW©ZogmR>r `m XodimMr K§Q>m dmOVo Voìhm Vmo AmdmO `oWn`ªV EoHy$ `oVmo hohr AZoH$Xm _r {VÀ`m Vm|Sy>Z EoH$V Ambmo Amho. _mÌ Z{XÀ`m H$mR>mda C§Mmda C^m amhÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$ê$Zhr _bm H$Yr Ë`m XodimMo Zm {eIa {Xgbo Zm Xwnmar ~mambm Ë`m K§Q>oMm AmdmO EoHy$ Ambm.
OodU Pmbo {H$ _J _m_m ZXrÀ`m dmhË`m àdmhmOdiÀ`m dmiyV ~marH$ IÈ>m V`ma H$ar. H$mhr jUmVM Ë`m IS>S>çmV nmUr da `oD$ bmJo. Vo nmUr EH$Xm {ZVi Pmbo {H$ _J AmoOirZo Amåhr Vo nmUr {nV Agy. _J nwÝhm Am_Mm ~¡bJmS>rZo àdmg gwê$ hmoB©. naVrMm doY bmJë`mZo ~¡b AmnUhÿZ H$go Xm¡S>V OmVmV, `mMm Ë`mdoir AZw^d `oB©.
JmoXmdarÀ`m EH$m {Vamda npíM_ _hmamï´>mVrb Ah_XZJa {OëømMr gr_maofm Va Xwgè`m {Vamda _amR>dmS>çmVrb Am¡a§Jm~mX {OëømMr gr_maofm Amho. Ah_XZJa {OëømÀ`m _wR>odmS>Jmd `oWyZ JmoXmdar Amobm§Sy>Z ^m_mQ>mU JmdmV àdoe Ho$bm {H$ _moJbmB© gwê$ hmoVo. ñdmV§Í`nyd© H$mimV _amR>dmS>m àXoe h¡Xam~mXÀ`m {ZOm_mÀ`m Vmã`mV hmoVm. hm àXoe _moJbmB©Mm n[aga åhUyZ AmoiIbm OmB©.
JmoXmdarÀ`m àdmhmZo `m XmoZ n[agam§Mr {d^mJUr Ho$br Amho. {ZgJm©À`m `m {d^mJUrZo EH$_oH$m§g AJXr IoQy>Z Agboë`m `m VmbwŠ`m§Mm gm_m{OH$, Am{W©H$, amOH$s`, Eo{Vhm{gH$ Am{U e¡j{UH$ dmagmhr nyU©V: {^Þ am{hbm Amho. {ZOm_emhrV d¡Omnya, J§Jmnya VmbwHo$ _amR>dmS>çmÀ`m BVa ^mJm§à_mUo Xwb©{jV am{hbo Am{U Ë`m§Mr hr nadS> _hmamï´>mÀ`m ñWmnZoZ§Vahr MmbyM am{hbr Amho. `mCbQ> npíM_ _hmamï´>mVrb lram_nya, H$monaJmd VmbwŠ`mbm ghH$mar MidirMo, ObqgMZmÀ`m Omù`mMo Am{U VmH$XdmZ amO{H$` MidirMo Am{U ZoV¥ËdmMo daXmZ bm^bo. JmoXmdarÀ`m {Vam§da C^o am{hbo åhUOo àJV npíM_ _hmamï´>mMo Am{U AmOhr _mJmg am{hboë`m _amR>dmS>çmMo `m gd©M joÌm§Vrb doJionU àH$fm©Zo OmUdVo.
JmoXmdarÀ`m àdmhmZo EH$_oH$m§nmgyZ {d^mJboë`m Ah_XZJa {OëømÀ`m lram_nya, amhþar, g§J_Zoa Am{U amhmVm `m VmbwŠ`m§V Am{U Am¡a§Jm~mX {OëømÀ`m d¡Omnya Am{U J§Jmnya VmbwŠ`m§V gìdmeo dfmªnydu åhUOo {dgmì`m eVH$mÀ`m AIoarg g_m§Va[aË`m {¼ñVr Y_m©§VamMr à{H$`m gwê$ Pmbr hmoVr. Ah_XZJa {OëømV O_©Z, Am°pñQ´>`Z Am{U ñdrg `oeyg§Kr` (OogwB©Q>) `m H°$Wmo{bH$ Y_©Jwê$§À`m g§ñWoMo gXñ` H$m_ H$aV hmoVo Va åhUOo _moJbmB© n[agamV {_eZarO Am°\$ g|Q> \«$mpÝgg S>r goëg (E_EgE\$Eg) `m Xwgè`m H°$Wmo{bH$ Y_©Jwê$§À`m g§ñWoMo \$mXabmoH$ H$m_ H$aV hmoVo.
n{hë`m _hm`wÜXmV 1915 gmbr {~«{Q>em§Zr Ah_XZJa {OëømV H$m_ H$aUmè`m O_©Z ZmJ[aH$ Agboë`m `oeyg§Kr` \$mXam§Mr qhXwñWmZmVyZ hH$mbnÅ>r Ho$br Voìhm _moJbmB©Vrb \«|$M ZmJarH$ Agbobo E_EgE\$Eg Y_©Jwê$ `oeyg§{K`m§À`m _XVrg YmdyZ Ambo. `m {OëømVrb amhmVm Am{U gmoZJmd Y_©J«m_m§V `oeyg§Kr` Y_©Jwê$§À`m AZwnpñWVrV 1921 n`ªV KmoJaJmdMo \$mXa Jw[a`Z Om{H$`a `m§Zr {eS>uOdirb amhmVm `oWo Am{U _amR>dmS>çmVrb Ë`m§Mo EH$ ghH$mar \$mXa Om°Z _oar ~oO} `m§Zr amhþarOdirb H|$Xi `oWo Y_©àgmamMo H$m`© Mmby R>odbo.1 `m _hm`wÜXmV \«$mÝg ho B§½b§S>Mo {_Ìamï´> Agë`mZo OÝ_mZo µ\«o$§M Agboë`m Y_©Jwê$§da {~«{Q>em§Zr Hw$R>bohr {Z~ªY bmXbo ZìhVo..
gZ 1973À`m gw_mamg _m_o~{hUrÀ`m b¾m{Z{_Îm gmVdrbm {eH$V AgVmZm _r KmoJaJmdbm Jobmo Voìhm _bm 'amOdmS>m', 'dog' 'MmdS>r' Am{U '_hma' `m eãXm§Mr n{hë`m§Xm AmoiI Pmbr. dog Zgboë`m Am{U AR>amnJS> OmVrY_m©Mo bmoH$ Zì`mZoM CX`mg Amboë`m Am_ì`m lram_nwa ehamV amhV Agë`mZo VoWo _bm `m eãXm§Mr AmoiI AgUo eŠ`M ZìhVo. KmoJaJmdmV {¼ñVamOmÀ`m XodimnmgyZ H$mhr A§Vamda Agboë`m OmJoV _mÂ`m AmOmo~m§Zr, JmoqdXamd {eZJa|Zr, ^|S>çm§Mo nm§T>è`m _mVrV ~m§Ybobo MmanmM Imoë`m§Mo Ka hmoVo. VoWoM Ë`mdoir em§ËdZ_m_m, {edam__m_m amhV hmoVo. Amgnmg AerM nm§T>è`m _mVrZo ~m§Ybobr AZoH$ Kao hmoVr. hr gd© Kao Agboë`m n[agambm 'amOdmS>m' Ago åhUV AgV. _mPo MwbV_m_m AmoT>çmÀ`m n{bH$S>o Agboë`m eoVmVrb PmonS>r§V amhV AgV. eoVmda Joë`mda A_wH$ OU Hw$R>o Jobm Aer {dMmaUm Pmbr {H$ Vmo 'amOdmS>çmda Agob' Ago CÎma H$mZmda Ambo {H$ _r ~wMH$i`mV nS>V Ago. 'Mm§Xmo~m' _m{gH$mV Am{U BVa Jmoï>r§À`m nwñVH$m§V amOoamOdmS>çm§À`m H$Wm dmMë`m_wio BWo 'amOdmS>m' hm H$m` àH$ma Amho ho H$iV Zgo. `m{df`r _r ~mB©bm {dMmabo Voìhm {VZo {Xboë`m CÎmam_wio Iwbmgm hmoÊ`mEodOr _mÂ`m _ZmVrb Jm|YimV A{YH$M ^a nS>br.
''Ama§ amOdmS>m åhÝOr åhmam§Mr dñVr, åhmadmS>m eãX ~am {XgV Zmhr åhZyZ amOdmS>m Ag§M åhÝË`mV,'' Ago {VMo CÎma hmoVo.
''AJ§ nZ ~mB©, AmnwZ åhma H$eo? AmnwZ Va {I[añVr Zm?'' _mÂ`m `m àíZmbm _mÂ`m {Zaja AmB©H$S>o CÎma ZìhVo. "AmËVm ~mB©, H$m` gm§Jmdm `m ßdmambm?'' Ago AM§ã`mZo Vm|S>mbm nXa bmdV åhUV Vr {~Mmar Jßn ~gbr hmoVr.
`m 'amOdmS>çmÀ`m' bmJyZM AJXr nS>PS>rbm Ambobr EH$ dog hmoVr. ~hþYm `m doern{bH$S>oM OwÝ`m H$mimV Jmd Am{U VoWo Cƒd{U©`m§Mr dñVr Agmdr. `m JmdmV Vã~b Mmirg df} am{hbobo Am{U `oWoM Xoh R>odbobo \$mXa Om{H$`a~m~m Amnë`m KmoS>mJmS>rV ~gyZ dm KmoS>çmda ñdma hmoD$Z Zoho_rMr `o-Om H$aV AgUma. `wamo{n`Z Agë`mZo qhXw g_mOmVrb Cƒd{U©`m§à_mUoM Ë`m§Zmhr doerImbyZ KmoS>çmda ~gyZ `oÊ`mOmÊ`mMm _mZ Ë`m§Zm hmoVm. doerÀ`m AmVë`m ~mOybm amOdmS>çmbmbmJyZM Voìhmhr _O~yV pñWVrV Agbobr EH$ MmdS>r hmoVr. amOdmS>çmVM hr MmdS>r Agë`mZo amOdmS>çmV amhUmè`m bmoH$m§MrM Vr hmoVr. amOdmS>çmVrb AZoH$ nwê$f_§S>ir VoWo ~gV Agë`mMo Am{U _rhr VoWo Joë`mMo _bm ñnï> AmR>dVo.
_hmamï´>mV OwÝ`m H$mimV àË`oH$ JmdmV ñn¥í`m§gmR>r Am{U Añn¥í`m§gmR>r Aem XmoZ ñdV§Ì MmdS>çm AgV. gdUm©À`m MmdS>rbm JmdMmdS>r Am{U Añn¥í`m§À`m MmdS>rbm _hma MmdS>r åhUV AgV. Jmd MmdS>rV ~gyZ ñn¥í` _§S>ir, nmQ>rb, VbmR>r Am{U JmdH$sMo H$m_ H$aUmao _hma am_moer ~gyZ JmdMm gm_m{OH$ Am{U emgH$s` H$ma^ma nmhV AgV Va _hma MmdS>rV ~gyZ _hma _§S>ir Amnë`m OmVrMm H$ma^ma nmhV AgV. Aem `m XmoZ MmdS>çm§{edm` Jmdm§V BVa g_mOmÀ`m, OmVrÀ`m ñdV§Ì MmdS>çm ZgV Ago S>m°. e§H$aamd IamVm§Zr {b{hbo Amho.2 A{bµH$S>À`m H$mimV Jmd MmdS>rMo ê$nm§Va g_mO_§{XamV Pmbo Am{U H$mhr {R>H$mUr ~m¡ÜX Y_© ñdrH$maboë`m bmoH$m§Zr _hma MmdS>rMo ~wÜX_§Xra qH$dm ~wÜX{dhma Ago Zm_H$aU Ho$ë`mMo {XgVo. _hma g_mO ~hþg§»`oZo {¼ñVr Y_m©V Joboë`m Jmdm§V AWm©VM `m _hma MmdS>çm§Mr H$mimÀ`m AmoKmV Añn¥í`VoÀ`m Mmbr[aVrà_mUoM nS>PS> Pmbr.
lram_nwa ehamV {edm{edrMm àË`j AZw^d KoVë`mMo _bm AmR>dV Zmhr. Á`m Kam§V gmodù`mAmodù`mMr àWm Ago Ë`mVyZ Ë`m KamVrb BVa ì`º$s¨Mrhr gwQ>H$m Zgm`Mr, Ë`m_wio `m àH$mam~m~V Hw$Ur \$mago _Zmbm bmdyZ KoV ZgV. Xa {Xdmirbm Am_À`m Kar eoOmaÀ`m _mir_amR>m Hw$Qw>§~m§Mr \$amimMr VmQ>o `oV, B©Xbm _wgb_mZ eoOmè`m§Mm era-Hw$a_m `oB© Am{U ZmVmimbm Am_À`mH$Sy>Z \$amimMr VmQ>o Ë`m gJù`m§H$S>o OmV. Am_À`m KamVyZ AmirVrb BVa H$mhr Kam§V AmR>dS>çmVyZ XmoZ-{VZXmVar H$mbdUm§Mr, ^mOr§Mr XodmUKodmU hmoV Ago. a{ddmar Am_À`mH$S>o h_Img demQ>mMo OodU Agë`mZo Ë`m{Xder `m XodmUKodmUrda ñW{JVr Agm`Mr. Ë`m_wio Amnë`m hmVM§ H$mhr bmoH$m§Zm MmbV Zmhr Am{U Vo H$m MmbV Zmhr ho _bm Iyn H$mi H$imboM Zmhr. `m àíZm§Mr CÎmao emoYÊ`mMr {ZH$S>hr Ë`mdoir ^mgbr Zmhr.
_mÂ`m _m_m§~amo~a KmoJaJmdmVrb dm Z{OH$À`m IoS>çm§Vrb H$mhr _mUgo lram_nwamV H$m_m{Z{_Îm Amë`mg Am_À`mhr Kar `oV AgV. Ë`m§À`mgmR>r nmÊ`mMm Vm§ã`m AmUbm {H$ Ë`m§À`mVrb H$mhr OU nmUr {nV ZgV. Ë`mZ§Va Ambobm Mhm KoÊ`mMohr Q>miV AgV. _mPo dS>rbnU bJoM Ë`m§Zm 'g_OyZ' KoD$Z MhmnmÊ`mMm AmJ«h H$aV ZgV. ''~mhoê$Z nadmg H$ê$Z Amboë`m nmìhÝ`mZo nmÝ`mbm, Àhmbm Zmhr åhÝb§ Va CJmM AmJah H$am`Mm ZñVmo. AmnwZ C_OyZ ¿`md§ {H$ hr _mÝg§ _amR>§ AgVrb. Ë`mÝZm Amßë`m hmVM§ MmbV ZñV§,"" Aer ~mB©Mr _J AmVë`m ImobrVbr EH$ g„mdOm {Q>nÊUr Agm`Mr.

AmOmoiÀ`m Ë`m dmñVì`mV _bm n{hë`m§XmM X{bV g_mOmVyZ {¼ñVr Pmboë`m g_mOmÀ`m A§Va§JmMr Am{U gm_m{OH$ nmíd©^y_rMr nwgQ>er OmUrd Pmbr. AmOmoiMr Vr daÀ`m OmVtVrb _mUgo KamV Ambr {H$ Ë`m§Mr dmJUyH$ Amåhm Y_m©§V[aV {¼ñVr g_mOmbm Am_Mr Iar AmoiI Am{U g_mOmVrb Am_Mr OmJm XmIdyZ XoV Ago. Xa a{ddmar XodimV AmnU b°Q>rZ ^mfoV {_ñgm Am{U àmW©Zm H$aV Agbmo Var AmnU H$mhr `wamo{n`Z Zmhr Am{U AmnU g_OVmo {VVH$m Amnbm {¼ñVr g_mO 'nwT>o Jobobm' Zmhr `mMr OmUrdhr Voìhm _bm n{hë`m§Xm Pmbr.
1) \$mXa \«$mpÝgg _m°Oo (E_EgE\$Eg), eo\$S>©g \$m°a ¼mB©ñQ>- A ñQ>moar Am°\$ X H°$Wmo{bH$ MM© BZ g|Q´>b B§{S>`m- (1907-1960); Am`Am`Eg npãbHo$eÝg, B§{S>`Z BpñQ>Q>çwQ> Am°\$ pñn[aÀ`wA[a{bQ>r, 80, âbrQ> ñQ´>rQ>, amOmOrZJa, ~|Jbmoa, 560 010 (1990) (nmZ 75); Am{U ^m. A. nbKS>_b, 'g§J_Zoa Y_©J«m_mbm 75 df} nyU© hmoVmV', ' {Zamoß`m' _m{gH$ , Am°JñQ> 1967, (nmZ 114)

2) S>m°. e§H$aamd IamV, '_hmamï´>mVrb _hmam§Mm B{Vhmg - OmVrMr CËnÎmr d {dH$mgmMm B{Vhmg,' `ed§Vamd MìhmU g_mOemó g§emoYZ H|$Ð Am{U ^maVr {dÚmnrR> nwUo, B§Ðm`Ur gm{hË`, 273, e{Zdma noR>, nwUo 411 030 (2003); (nmZ 57 Am{U 58)

(nyd©à{gÜXr-'gwJmdm' _m{gH$, OyZ 2007)